Technological literacy is a necessary 21st-century skill for todays world. According to North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (2003), it is imperative that schools and school districts act specifically to provide learning experiences that enable students to find success in a rapidly changing, knowledge-based, global society. Teachers are increasingly required to learn and use more computer technology in schools with students; yet training is inadequate in many school settings (Cuban, 2013).Technology is constantly changing, the need for school systems to create effective technology integration into the classroom requires that teachers be adequately trained (Brooks-Young, 2007; ChanLin, 2005; Gordon, 2011).Technology integration in many schools has been inadequate even when educators are trained.
According to Lawless and Pellegrino (2007), there are much-needed improvements for professional development in effective technology practices in order to positively impact teaching and learning.With the rapid advancement of technology each year, teachers must be ready for the 21st century (Learning Point Associates, 2007).Effective integration of technology in the classroom may be hampered by teachers perceptions, particularly if those perceptions are negative (Hutchison & Reinking, 2011). With continuously growing technologies, teachers and administrators must understand the need for improvements in the ways educators and students use technology in the classroom. Trends and challenges for the 21st century indicate that people will be living in a new economypowered by technology, fueled by information, and driven by knowledge (U.S. Department of Labor, 1999, p. 1).
Operational Definition of Technology:
‘Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value.
- Brian Arthur defines technology in a similarly broad way as “a means to fulfill a human purpose.”
In-service Teachers Perceptions Toward iPad Classroom Integration
Objectives of study:
The purpose of this study will discover teacher attitudes and perceptions toward technology integration in the classroom after teacher training in the use of iPads. Current professional development programs in school districts most certainly have had an effect on the participants use of technology in the classroom. Consequently, teacher training, or professional development, must consider educators attitudes about the preparation for technology integration in their classrooms because teachers have different perceptions, as well as different goals in mind. Knapper (2001) asserted that when teachers express their goals for learning, selecting approaches to meet these goal leads to better educational practices and to devise assessments methods to measure whether the training practices are attained.
This research will be guided by three primary questions:
1) Are teachers concerned about using iPads themselves in their classroom?
2) Are teachers concerned about their students use of iPads in the classroom?
3) Are teachers concerned with the effect iPads will have on them or their classrooms?
This case study could advance the knowledge of technology integration in schools. The results may enlighten administrators and educators about their technology integration strengths and deficiencies. With a clearer understanding of technology integration practices, awareness of new strategies may increase teacher participation in technology workshops. Professional practices that focus on producing technology-literate teachers may be more effective at producing technology-literate students. The International Technology Education Association (203) asserts that A massive, coordinated effort is needed in order to achieve a technologically literate populace (p.12). The problems that interfere with technology integration must continue to be studied.
Technology in schools brings about the need for teacher training. In todays classroom, it is common practice to incorporate computer use, peripherals, and software in daily work and communications since technology is a dependable part of activities (Groff & Mouza, 2008). Computers and technology are used in a great many ways; they have become an important element of educational needs (Erdogan, 2010; Gordon, 2011). It is imperative for researchers to study the process of professional development for its effectiveness for teachers integrating technology into the classroom, including training sessions, teachers attitudes and perceptions, and analyzing the variables and constructs (Buabeng-Andoh, 2012).
Labbo and Place (2010) define technology integration as curriculum integration with the use of technology involves the infusion of technology as a tool to enhance learning in a content area or a multidisciplinary setting (p. 9). For instance, technology integration can be used for guided, virtual field trips, assigned web quests, and should occur in ways that research shows make the learning process deeper and more enhancing (Labbo & Place, 2010, p. 9). Other activities could include creating electronic journals and composing written assignments. Students conduct research on the Internet and use online software programs and applications as well as licensed proprietary software programs to accomplish various curriculum objectives (Labbo & Place, 2010).
As a result, teachers must be ready to use a variety of applications of technology with their students.Technology integration has different meanings to diverse school systems. Once defined by a particular school or curriculum, a thorough examination can take place. This literature review supports my decision as a researcher to study a limited form of technology integration: the use of the iPad in the classroom as a teaching tool. A review of educational technology standards explains this concept further.The adoption and integration of tablet devices into [education] systems is not without controversies, and the purpose of this report is to explore if we know enough to demonstrate if, how and when iPads support learning.
An iPad allows teachers to integrate technology on an individual student basis. As the teacher navigates their classroom and facilitates student learning, the iPad allows the teacher to search for resources or display a simulation or scroll to a specific section of an electronic book or website – without having to return to their desk or to the interactive whiteboard at the front of the room. Essentially, it is as if the teacher is able to tuck that electronic whiteboard underneath their arm and use it with the same mobility as a teacher would use a textbook in years past.
According to Harris (2005), despite more than two decades of attempts, the expectation that technology will function as a “Trojan horse” for educational reform has occurred in only a minority of K-12 settings. Similarly, Bolick (2008) observed that there has been a void in the literature about how the integration of technology influences teaching and learning. Critics even argued that few of the studies that gave credit to technology in K-12 education meet rigorous empirical methodological standards or directly linked the use of technology in the classroom with improved standardized test scores (Angrist & Lavy, 2002; Cuban, 2001).In contrast to the arguments and findings of the limited success of technology integration in K-12 education, advocates of technology integration argued that the trend of technology inclusion in education is a necessity of life.
Learners today have grown up in the world where handheld computing devices, Internet- enhanced cell phones, and other personal digital tools are common (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow, 2008; Marshall, 2002; Prensky, 2005). According to the report of the Pew Internet & American Life Project (2005),21 million young people, accounting for 87 percent of 12- to 17-year-old American teens, are Internet users. Therefore, these webzines or digital natives expect to learn in an environment that mirrors their current lives and their futures, which seamlessly integrates today’s digital devices, supports a mobile lifestyle, and increases collaboration and teamwork in both physical and virtual spaces (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow, 2008).
In addition, we are living in the information era in which people have flooded with data and news from different sources thanks to the popularity of the Internet, computers, and mobile technologies. This era creates a new notion of digital literacy skills which learners need to learn how to find, process, sift and analyze data, and make meaning of it all. Therefore, technology integration into the classroom is definitely a necessity of life not simply a trend or fad in education.
Nature of Study
The study will be mixed method type of research in nature.This mixed method study combined the paradigms of quantitative and qualitative research to examine how iPads are used from teachers’ perspectives.
Students will be selected randomly as a sample.
We will adopt a content analysis approach using QDAMiner software, which is widely used in qualitative research (see Fielding, 2012; Karsenti, Komis, Depover, & Collin, 2011). For the quantitative analysis, we used SPSS 22.0 software to conduct descriptive and inferential statistics. We also conducted inferential statistics to further explore the iPads role in teaching and learning, along with its motivational effect. The results will be presented in a subsequent report.
The data will be collected through the survey of different schools.
Once the preliminary qualitative and quantitative results on the questionnaires will be obtained, and in order to validate the results, we will meet with a number of the teachers and students to determine the extent to which the findings matched their perceptions and knowledge of the issues.
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