The present study was conducted to assess the mental health, occupational stress and psychological well-being of national and multinational bank employees. The comparative study design was used for this study. The sample of N=150 bank employees (n=75 from national bank employees, n=75 from multi-national bank employees).The participants were bank employees from different banks. No restrictions of religion, marital status, educational level, and socioeconomic status were made.
Tools that were employed were Mental Health Inventory (MHI-38), Job stress Diagnostic survey and Psychological well-being scale. Results were obtained using independent sample t-test by running data on SPSS-18. The findings revealed that there is a significant difference in mental health and occupational stress level among national and multinational bank employees. The good mental health of national bank was found and High level of stress was seen in multi-national bank employees. Results also revealed that there is no difference in the psychological well-being of national and multinational bank employees.
Banking sectors of Pakistan have been facing many changes due to liberalization, globalization and many other global affairs. Banking sectors has gone through several transformations in 1974 since nationalization of banks. Many policies were changes in the form of privatization in1991 with the plan to give better services to their consumers. These privatizations and Globalization policies give rise to the reformation of banking sectors in order to achieve a completive edge (Davies, 2012).
Societies are engulfed by several crises at this era along with employees having difficult time to cope with the occupational stress. Employees spent their most of the time in offices as compare to home .The introduction of ATM machines, e-banking and wide use of computers have changed the entire work style of Pakistani’s bank employees. These changing have affected economical, psychological and social globe of bank employees directly or indirectly. These factors cause occupational stress in bank employees. Due to the internal or external changes the employees of bank are going through some level of stress (Cole, 2010).
After 24/7 work routine employees become more exhausted. However stress is normal part of every organization despite of salary and position in company. When bank employees experience occupational stress their mental health as well as psychological well-being is affected (Mojoyinola, 2001).
Mental health is individual state with regard to is emotional and psychological well-being. That state in which a person can analyze his/her strengths. A bank employee who is suffering from mental health may suffer from depression, low self-esteem, and loss of emotional control, dissatisfaction, anxiety and results in server psychological disorder. Mental health is a mental state of growth, self-acceptance, healthy relations with others and wellbeing. Warr (1987) proposed four major perspective of mental health which is as following
Competence. Good mental health is taken in terms of acceptable degree of achievement in diverse field of activities. A competent individual has ample psychological assets to deal with the life demands. A good mental health becomes apparent when a person faces hardships.
Autonomy. It is the ability of an individual to stand firm to the environmental influences and to examine her/his own actions. Fundamental characteristic of mentally healthy people are self-regulation and strive for independence (Warr , 1987).
Aspiration. Mentally healthy people engage their self to the environment. They set goals and put their all efforts to achieve those goals. People who have low aspiration, they have low mental health.
Integrated functioning. Integrated functioning is defined “person as a whole”. It reflects the different aspects of individual’s behavior in relation to his surroundings and it also determines the individual’s affective well-being (Warr ,1987).
Mental health is the adjustment of individual according to his environment so that he could face realities of world and work more in satisfies way. Those who are suffering from mental health illness are unable cope with the problems of society and they are unable to trust their own self and have a lot of problems related to the people who are around them.
According to Azeez and Adenuga (2009) there are few characteristic of healthy mental health. This includes: trusting one own self, respecting the other people’s rights, dealing with the problems of life in a proper way, have abilities to let go tings and forgive others, respect other people’s opinions, forgive other peoples for their mistakes, consider other people’s opinions and their own opinion too, they have realistic goals, positive thinking.
War (1987) projected that the sense of psychological well-being from occupation must be taking in terms of general environmental determinants of individual’s mental health. He identified nine determents’ of psychological well-being.
Availability of money. Restricted access to money could give rise to many processes like impair mental health. The existence of money doesn’t show the high level of mental health but the lack of money could lead to low mental health and serious psychological problems.
Opportunity for control. First determinant is opportunity which is provided by averment to an individual to control events and activities. Mental health is improved by the surrounding environment which endorses the personal control. There are two main elements of control which are, i) the chance to choose and act in one’s decided way, ii) the prospective to foretell the consequences of that action. If the second element is absent than this would lead to uncontrollability. Uncontrollability is one an individual has free will to decide and work on it but he cannot predict its outcomes. Not knowing the consequences of an act would cause problems which will leads to stress and low mental health of a worker as well (War, 1987).
Opportunity for skill use. Second element is the degree to which the surrounding environment promotes or inhibits the use and growth of skills. There are two kinds of restrictions on skills usage which are i) those which prevent people from utilizing the skills that are already in them and sanctioning instead only usual behaviors , ii) the restrictions on acquiring of new skills , requiring individuals to remain at lowest level of performance regardless of their potential for growing into more multifarious activities.
Externally generated goals. The third feature of tacit mental health is the presence of goals which are generated by the surrounding environment. An environment which makes no demands from individual will encourage no achievement. An environment which promotes the founding of goals will leads to activities which have positive effect on the mental health.
Environmental variety. Some goals and activities are engendering by the environment which are cyclic and invariant. Cyclic activity is suspected to contribute to mental health to same degree as more assorted requirement, this introduced new activity and location.
Physical security. Environment must protect the individual from the harm and provide security with respect to everything. Physical security of individual must be permanent.
Environmental clarity. It is a degree to which the surrounding environment of a person is clear. Clarity have two components, i) feedback about the cost of one’s action and ii) clarity of the requirement of role about behavior and the degree to which standards are accepted within the environment (War, 1987).
Opportunity for the interpersonal contact. Interpersonal contact provides instrumental and emotional support. Many goals could be accomplish through the co-dependent hard work of many people.
Valued social position. Esteem is generated by the value attached by the activities inbuilt in a role. Role provides the proof that one has certain abilities and meets social responsibilities.
Warr (1987) felt that the recognition of these nine dimensions was compulsory to understand the effect of environment of a worker on his mental health. Mental health is the psychological well-being of an individual. If we talk about past occupational health was very much concerned with physical health and the safety of workers. Mental health could be defined as the adjustment of the individual to himself and to the society so that he can face the realities of life and function most effectively with the greatest satisfaction, cheerfulness and acceptable behavior. Thus individuals with mental illness are unable to believe in themselves, distrust people, are unable to cope with daily problems of life and have problems relating to others (Okubanjo, 2009).
Mental health accompanies the psychological issues such as Anxiety, Depression, Loss of Behavioral / Emotional Control, General Positive Affect, Emotional Ties and Life Satisfaction.
Anxiety. It is a feeling of panic or fear. Usually people feel anxious before an event such as presentation, meetings etc. Anxiety disorder is an illness which cause individuals to feel uneasy, distressed for any apparent reason. This disorder occurs with prolonged mental illness. Anxiety disorder is of different types such as panic disorder which includes sudden feeling of fear, panic attack, improper heartbeat, dizziness, fear of dying etc. Obsessive compulsive disorder which include repeated unwanted thought or repeating certain behavior again and again. Post traumatic disorder occurs after a traumatic event; symptoms include flashbacks, nightmares, irritability, numbness, depression. Phobia includes extreme fear or something which in really have less or no danger. This phobia can lead employees to avoid certain situations and objects and limit their lives. Generalized anxiety disorder is exaggerated, chronic worry about routine life event. GAD is accomplished by fatigue, headache , muscle tension, nausea. These disorders are often accomplished by depression. Anxiety disorder may co exits with physical mental health conditions. If anxiety is not treated at proper time than this order can reduce the productivity of employees (Okubanjo, 2009).
Depression. It is in the nature of human being to feel sad and happy. Feelings are usually short-lived but if someone feels blue for more than 5 weeks it results in depression. Most of the people who were victim of depression never seek treatment. Depression has several forms. Major depression includes symptoms which hinder the ability to eat, sleep, study, work, focus and enjoy life. Persistent depressive disorder includes depressed mood for at least two years. Psychotic depression or severe depression or in psychosis, patient may suffer from hallucinations and delusions. Postoartum depression occurs in women after giving birth to baby. Many hormones changes and results in postpartum depression. Ten to fifteen percent women are suffering from this kind of depression. Seasonal affective disorder is depression caused by seasonal changing. Manic depressive illness is a rare type of depression, it is exemplify by cyclic mood changes. Depression is caused by the combination of biological , environmental and psychological factors. People who are suffering from depression may have feeling of hopeless, no interest in their work, helplessness, they are very pessimistic, fatigue, insomnia, suicidal thoughts. People suffering from depression have extremely poor mental health (Okubanjo, 2009).
Loss of Behavioral / Emotional Control. Loss of emotion control is lack of individual’s ability to control impulses and his/her behavior. This could be result of physical violation, stress, burden or psychological disorder. During this state a person may fight, scream, and weep. It also includes involuntary immobility because of extreme fear of something. This could result after a life threaten event such as floods, earthquake, frauds, sudden loss in business.
General Positive Affect. this defines how an individual feel positive emotions and interact with his surroundings. People who have high general positive affect are active, confident, hardworking, and energetic and have high job performance. On the other hand people with low general positive affect have stress, sadness, no pleasure, less job performance etc (Okubanjo, 2009).
Emotional Ties. Emotional ties are the emotional bonds of people with their surroundings, colleagues, and family etc. emotional ties are formed when people work together, spend time together. Some people find these emotional ties helpful and some take them as tension pulling which develop frustration, anger, reducing satisfaction. Any perceived or real stimulus which cause discomfort on emotion ties are occupational hazards.
Life Satisfaction. Life satisfaction is an individual is satisfied and happy with his life. When he believes that his life is moving on a right track. Life satisfaction is negatively related to the outcomes such as depression, aggression, fights etc (Okubanjo, 2009).
Psychological well-being is mostly taken in the term of affective functioning and positive states with optimal effectiveness and the social life in a person. It can be defined as continues development and growth, self-acceptance and autonomy of thoughts of a person. It is the combination of two states i.e. functioning effectively and feeling of good.
Psychological well-being is also termed as quality of life. Psychological well-being is multidimensional construct. It includes emotional, physical, social and mental behavior. According to Schwarz and Strack has define psychological well-being as individual evaluation of their happiness.
Job satisfaction could be taken in terms of level of satisfaction of a person regarding his job. If job is pleasantness, an employee will not be satisfied with his/her job. Generally the feeling of stress of a bank employee could affect psychological well-being; low level of psychological well-being will obviously leads to job stress.
Criteria for the bank distress include Bankruptcy, negative net worth, in liquidation or dissolves. A parameter is set for measuring the health of a bank which is abbreviated as “CAMELS” C stand for “Capital adequacy” A stand for “Asset quality”, M stand for “Management”, E stands for “Earnings’, L stands for “Liquidity ratio” and S stands for Sensitivity. This criterion is used for diagnosing the sick banks (Ryff, 1989).
Selye (1956) defined ‘Stress’ as to represent the impact of any event that can threaten the homeostasis. Stress is the result of imbalance between the resources and demands. Stress is faced when the pressures is beyond individual’s perceived ability to cope. Job is inevitable to human being. A person may not get marry without job. The one who refuse to work may become a beggar. Everyone has to work no matter he is happily doing it or not. Stress is a part of everyday life activities.
Occupational stress have four dimensions which are , role conflicts is when an individual is expected to do the duties of two opposing positions, it has two types intra role conflicts and inter role conflicts. Intra role conflict is when there is mismatched components wit in the same role. Inter role conflicts is when the expectation of two different roles clash with each other’s. Role ambiguity there is lack of clarity of expected behavior from job or position. Role overload (qualitative) is over load of work which is work which is very difficult in nature. And roll over load (quantitative) in which one has to complete his work in a given time limit. Every individual experience stress but the reason differs from person to person because different people have different mental health (Ryff, 1991).
According to Branham one half of the employees are feeling dysfunction because of occupational stress. This stress has a negative effect on the work productivity. He confirmed that stress could be caused because of many reasons which include improper supply of equipment to the employees. Azeez and Adenuga (2009) worked on mental health and occupational stress of employees. They establish a link between occupational stress and mental health of employees. If we talk about an organization, occupational stress is also termed as work stress or job stress.
There are two dimensions of depression which are psychological and physiological stress. Psychological health includes emotional reactions towards stress like anger, tension; frustration etc. on the other hand physiological stress includes reactions of our body towards stress like migraine, fatigue, muscle ache, sleep disturbance etc. If an employee is unable to control his stress may lead to have negative attitude towards his job (Spurgeon, Harrington & Cooper, 1997).
Occupational stress had played a vital role in causing the different diseases among industrial workers. Occupational stress is not a new term or phenomenon but it has a strong negative effect on employee’s health. One of the major causes of occupational stress is work overload. Workload is divided into two types’ quantitative workload and qualitative workload. Quantitative workload is type of workload in which one has to complete his work in a given time limit. This is a very common cause of stress and it is linked to coronary heart diseases. Qualitative workload includes the work which is very difficult in nature. Having no abilities to do a job is more stressful as compare to quantities workload (Harrison, & Kinner, 2010).
Cooper (1983) summarized that six factors are responsible for occupational stress which are 1. Relationship with other employs e.g. conflicts with coworkers 2. Factors which are fundamental to job e.g. heat, noise, shift works etc.; 3. Role of individual in organization e.g. role ambiguity; 4. Climate of organization e.g. lack of opportunity to participate in decision making 5. Development of career e.g. job uncertainty 6. Work and home interface e.g. lack of spousal support for remaining in office. Occupational stress is a kind of reaction due to stress which could be psychological and physiological.
Stress level is different in different occupations. National institute for occupational safety and health worked on stress level and ranked one hundred and thirty professions in terms of the stress level they stimulate. Occupations in which worker have highest stress includes clinical laboratory technicians, machine operators, labors, miners. Some other stressful occupations are firefighters, city bus drivers, police officers and bankers. Generally blue collars suffer from more stress because they have less choice to take any decision regarding their work and timing (Ahmad & Ahmad, 1992).
Occupational stress could be divided into two types which are chronic stress and acute stress. Acute stress is little level of stress which is generally experienced stress. Acute stress cause physical and emotional distress. Acute stress which is not resolved is results in chronic stress. Employees are forced to work more than the working hours because they have to manage a lot of things and see a lot of customers every working day. These issues make it important to find out the level of occupational stress (Varma & Dhawan, 2006).
Stress could weaken the achievement of aims, for individual as well as for organization. If large number of employees is affected by work stress, it may dare performance and health of organization. An unhealthful organization is not able to get full performance of their employees. Employees who are affected by occupational stress may
- Become unable to concentrate or relax
- Having problem in decision making and logical thinking
- Become more and more irritable and distressed
- Feel less committed to their occupation
- Difficulty in sleep
- Feel anxious, tired and depressed
- Experience serious physical health issues such as hypertension, headaches etc.
Folkman (1984) suggested that stress is the result of imbalance between the resources and demands. According to Palmer (1999) stress is faced when the pressures is beyond individual’s perceived ability to cope. It is a physiological, behavioral and psychological response of a person when he perceives lack of balance between the demands and the abilities to fulfill those demands. This leads to serious health problems. According to Lazarus (1966) stress is occur when a person perceived that the external situational demands are out of his perceived capability to manage with them. Subha and Shakeel (2009) work on stress and found that the high level of stress will lower the performance of employees.
Work stress could affect the bank by :
- Decreasing the commitment of employees to work
- Increasing the number of absenteeism
- Increasing the turn-over of staff
- Damage the image of bank among external and employees
The economy which is not under state control, they are lope by individuals for the sake of profit are known as multinational, private banks. Private sectors are not operated by government and they are all covered for profit business. People who are working in multinational banks are multinational bank employees. Industries, companies or banks which are under government control and are run by government are known as national, public or government banks. Employees who are working in national banks are known as national bank employees (Ryff, 1989).
National bank employee work from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm. Saturday and Sunday are officially off. Employees of national banks are very relaxed. Job security is high and income is low. When they are transferred from one place to another, the process of migration of family is very problematic. Multi-national employees also work from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm but usually they have to engage in the overtime duty. Multi-national employees are allowed to take single day off and they have good salary. Multi-national job is not secured one .
Thus both kinds of jobs have both advantages and disadvantages as well. Some prefer job in national banks because it has high level of job security and less stress on the other hand some prefer job in multi-national banks because of large amount of salary. Therefore it as important to study the mental health, psychological well-being and occupation stress of national and multi-national bank employees (Harrison, & Kinner, 2010)
Cob (1975) belief that the workload gives rise to high level of occupational stress among managers and workers. If one cannot handle with increased responsibilities than this may results in psychological as well as physiological disorders in them. A person is having occupational stress is more likely to have job dissatisfaction, mental health problems and less self-esteem.
Several nationwide surveys in Ghana have revealed that 58% of the workforces in the organizations were suffering from occupational stress. Organizations which are not part of nation sector are part of multinational sector. Private sectors were having high psychological well-being problems due to difference in work schedule, job security, work load and salary etc (Ryan, & Deci, 2001).
The current study is conducted to un-reveal the psychological well-being and mental health in private and government bank employees of Pakistan, as they feel stressed due to the amount of work assigned to them on daily basis.
After the global crisis, banks have to meet the terms with the national and international standards. It is very common for banks to fix higher targets loan disbursement, loan recovery, growth deposit mobilize and etc. Employees have to meet this target which keeps them on their toes. They complete these tasks by staying at work till late night, attending meetings for several hours which results in serious pressure. Competition is increased due to entrance of downsizing, introduction of novel technologies, more private banks etc. In comparison to other occupations, banking is considered to be the most stressful occupation. Bankers are highly stressed and most of them are dissatisfied with their jobs. It seems that due to constant economic crisis and increased working hours, bankers are suffering from burnout, poor mental health and stress which results in serious psychological health issues. In Pakistani context, this research will get importance since these issues have long been neglected. This research will highlight the mental health, occupational stress and psychological well-being among National and multinational bank employees. It identifies the problems experienced by Pakistani bank employees which can have numerous implications in the field of industrial psychology.
- To examine the mental health of national and multinational bank employees.
- To determine the level of occupational stress among national and multinational bank employees.
- To explore the level of psychological well-being among national and multinational bank employees.
H1 There is significant difference in the mental health of national and multinational bank employees.
H1 There is significant difference in the level of occupational stress among national and multinational bank employees.
H1 There is significant difference in the level of psychological well among national and multinational bank employees.
The following section includes researches on mental health, occupational stress and psychological well-being among National and multinational bank employees.
Adenuga (2015) conducted a study on “impact of occupational stress on Job satisfaction and mental of first bank employees”. This study was conducted in order check the impact of job stress on the mental health and job satisfaction of bank employees. Study design was Ex-post and sample was collected by random sampling strategy. Sample size was N=100 from Nigeria was taken which include fifty three females and forty seven males. Age limit was set between 21 to 52 years. Three valid and reliable instruments i.e. “job satisfaction survey”; “Occupational stress inventory” and “mental health Inventory” were used for sample collection. Results of this study reveal that there is not a significant relation in mental health and occupational stress of bank employees. Occupational stress does not affect mental health of employees.
Jogsan (2013) conducted a research on “mental health and depression of Bank employee”. This research was conducted in order to examine the mean difference of bank employees in depression and mental health. Sample size was N=90 bank employees. Forty five bank employees were from private and 45 were from public bank sectors. Researcher use Mental Inventory to check mental health and Beck depression inventory to examine the level of depression. Data analysis was done with the help of independent sample t-test. Results have shown a significant difference in depression and mental health of bank employees. Results has shown that the employees who were from private banking sectors has poor mental health as well as high level of depression as compare to those who were working in public bank sectors
Nahar, Hossain, Rahman and Bairagi (2013) conducted a research on “The Relationship of Job Satisfaction, Job Stress, Mental Health of Government and Non-Government Employees of Bangladesh”. The purpose of this research is to check relation in job satisfaction, occupational stress and the mental health of employees who were working in non-government and government sectors. Sample size N=100 were selected from both sectors. For the sake of data “Job Satisfaction Scale”, “Occupational Stress Index” and “General Health Questionnaire” was utilized. Data analysis was done by using ANOVA and means. Results indicate High level of stress was shown by Non-Government employees. This study also revealed that a significant relation exits in job satisfaction, occupational stress and mental health of both sectors employees. On other hand results reveal that the level of stress was lower for Government employees as compare to non-Government employees. Mental Health of employees who work in government sectors was high as compare to those who work in private sectors.
Khudaniya and Kaji (2014) conducted a study on “Occupational Stress, Job Satisfaction & Mental Health among Employees of Government and Non-government Sectors”. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the occupational stress, mental health and level of job satisfaction of employees who work government and non-government sectors. Sample size N=100. Data was taken from both non-government and government sectors. n=50(25 were female and 25 were males) from public sectors and n=50 (25 were female and 25 were males) from private sectors. As instrument “Occupational stress index”, “Job satisfaction scale” and “Employee’s mental health inventory” was used. Independent sample SD, t-test and means were used to analyze data. Results reveal that there is not any significance difference in level of occupational stress in the employees of private and public sectors; males and females experience the same level of occupational stress. Negative correlation exits in job stress and the job satisfaction of private and public sectors employees; between mental health and occupational stress a negative correlation is indicated. No significant difference is seen in job satisfaction, job stress and mental health of public and private sectors.
Karshan (2015) Conducted a research on occupational stress and job satisfaction among private and public sector bank employs. Sample size N=100 (n=50 private bank sector and n=50 public bank sectors).Job satisfaction scale and Occupational stress index was used on sample. Scoring mean value was better in public bank employs as compare to private bank employs, which means that the public bank employs are more satisfied as compare to private bank employs. This study also shows that the female bank employs were facing high occupational stress as compare to male bank employs.
Niharika and Kiran (2014) conducted a research on “Occupational Stress among Bank Employees”. Ex-Post facto design was used for this study. Multi stage Random sampling technique was used to collect sample from employees. This technique was used in order to get sample easily. Sample size N=120 (n=40 from private banks, n=80 from nationalized bank. From private bank twenty were females and 20 were males on the other hand from nationalized bank forty were male and forty were females. Occupational stress index was used to check occupational stress. Occupational stress is the stress caused by the work and this arises from the complex interactions of large systems with the interrelated variables. The level of occupational stress was high on private bank employees as compare to the employee of nationalized bank.
Dhanka (2015) conducted research on “Occupational stress in banking sector”. The aim of this study is examine the effect of different component of occupation stress on the banking sectors employee. Random convenient sampling was used to collect data. Sample size N=200. n=100 were from private bank employees while n=100 were from public bank employees. Occupational stress measurement scale was used as tool. This scale consists of twelve job stressors and 46 items. Every item was rated on 5 point likert scale. Sample was taken from managerial as well as non-managerial staff. It was administered electronically and in personal. Results indicated that the occupational stress was very high among both public and private bank employees. For the occupational stress a single factor was not only responsible some other factors include ambiguity, confliction, pressure and work load.
Manea, Salceanu, Chiper, and Chiper (2013) conducted a study on “occupational stress and tolerance of bank employees” the purpose of this research was to examine stress linked with designation of bank employee. Sample size N=157 was taken from the bank. Two valid instruments were used which includes a stress questionnaire; include thirty two items with three point likert scale and the acceptance of other scales include twenty items; this scale will assess the emotions and feeling toward other colleagues. Results as shown that the Hierarchical position or designation of any employee have no affected the level of stress.
Franklin (2014) conducted a study on “occupational stress and selected banking institutions in Kumasi”. The purpose of this research was to examine burnout and job stress and their effects on job performance of an employee. Sample size N=100. Convenience sampling was used to collect data. Pie charts, graphs, mean and standard deviations were used for descriptive statistics. Regressions and correlations were used to check the relationship between the variables. The main reason for occupational stress was not getting enough time to spend with family and working more than working hours. The level of burnout and occupational stress was moderate. A significant positive relation was found in burnout and occupational stress. Work performance and occupation stress and burnout were having a negative relation.
Malik (2011) carried research on “occupational stress experienced by private and public banks employees in Quetta City”. The purpose of this research was to check effect of job stress on employee and their organization. Systematic random sampling was used to collect sample. Sample size N=200 was taken. Sample of Fifty was taken from private banks and fifty from public banks. Selected population was from 30-40 years of age. Female were not selected for this research, only male participants were considered. Stress is faced by everyone regardless of fields. It could have negative effect on organization and employee as well. Results indicated that the occupational stress is low in public bank employees as compare to the private bank employees.
Chovwen (2013) conducted a research on “Occupational stress among bank employees in South East, Nigeria” this study was conducted in order to check the effect of independent and joint perdition of perceived leadership style, job characteristics and emotional intelligence on occupational stress among the bank employees. Sample size N=210 was taken from banks regardless of gender. 5 hypothesis were tested 3 were partially and 2 were completely confirmed. An employee can help his colleague to change his perceptions about stress; provide coping strategies to them. Level of stress is affected by employee’s status in workplace. On the other hand workplace stress can affect employees of every type.
Babu and Vembu (2014) conducted a research on “occupational stress experienced by women employees in banking sector” the purpose of this research was to check occupational stress in women of banking sector. Sample size was n=100 women room banks. Results revealed that women experienced a very high amount of stress due to lack of training, lack of developmental opportunities or sexual harassment. This study also revealed that there is a significance relation in the level of stress of public sector banking women and level of workload.
Ayyappan and Vadivel (2013) conducted a research on “The Impacts of Occupational Stress of Selected Banking Sector Employees in Tamilnadu” The purpose of this research was to examine the stress level experienced by bank employees who were under various categories from both private and the public sectors of banks in Tamilandu. Sample size N=300 was collected from different banks by convenient sampling technique. Descriptive analysis and one way analysis of variance was used to analyze data. As the level of stress is growing day by day among the bank employees. This study was intended to clarify the significance relation between the gender, type of bank, age, education, length, type of family, type of job, marital status and the effect occupational stress. Bank employees must adopt new coping techniques for uphold good mental condition and physical health; this will improve the level of productivity of bank. Results revealed that no significant difference is seen in the effect of occupational stress and type of bank on the bank employees.
Samartha, Begum, and Lokesh (2014) conducted a study on occupational stress of employs of public and private sector. The purpose of this research was to examine the causes of occupational stress in bank employees and how it affects private and public bank employees. This study design was descriptive study and stratified random sampling technique was used to get sample. Sample size N=537 (n=126 employees from private banks and n=411 from public sector banks).Data analysis was done by Regression, factor analysis and chi square. According to this study there is no any difference in stress level among the employee of government and non-government banking sector. Employees of both bank sectors experience same level of stress.
Alam and Rizvi (2012) conducted a research on psychological well-being among bank employees. Random sampling technique was use to collect data from sample size of N=100(n=50 from private bank employees, n-50 from public bank employees). Only sample was taken from male employees who were graduated in order to avoid gender effect. Age range was taken from 27-58. A valid tool “psychological well-being questionnaire” was used in this study. This tool comprises of twenty eight items with “yes” or “no” responses. Psychological well-being is considered as a very important part of employee performance. This emphasizes on positive characteristic of development and growth. Results shows that the level of subjective well-being was high in employees who work in public banks as compare to those who work in private banks.
Srimathi and Kumar (2010) conducted research on “Psychological Well-being of Employed Women across Different Organizations”. The purpose of this research was to find the level of psychological well-being in working women from different professions. The sample size was N=325. This sample was collected from 5 totally different organizations, 67 from banks, 63 from hospitals, 67 from industries, 60 from call centers and 68 from educational institutions. Age limit was from 25 to 50 years. “Carol Ryff’s medium form of psychological well-being” was used as a tool to assess the psychological well-being. Results of this study revealed that the women who were working in industries were having less psychological well-being in all the factors and total scores as compare to women working in a health organization. Women teachers were having highest total scores of psychological well-being. Women who were working in banks were having medium level of scores of psychological well-being.
Bashir and Sufyanzilli (2015) conducted a research on “Psychological Well-Being among Public and Private Undertakings in Aligarh”. This purpose of this research was to evaluate the psychological well-being in private and public undertakings. Sample size N=100 were collected from public and private undertakings. Participants were selected randomly; private sectors include Private Banks and companies while public sectors include university employees, public bank employees. A positive aspect which is present in every individual is psychological wellbeing and this was very important to check it in both sectors. Low level of psychological well-being affects our life in a way, it could affect any domain either work or study etc. A valid instrument “Psychological wellbeing scale” was used. It was given by Carol ryff and comprises of 42 items. This scale is having six dimensions which consist of Autonomy, personal Growth, and purpose of life, self-acceptance, Environmental Mastery, and Positive relationship. Data was analyzed by independent sample t-test and mean standard deviation. The results reveal that the level of psychological well-being was very higher in public undertakings and compare to private undertaking.
Samuel, Osinowo and Chipunza (2009) conducted a study on “the relationship between bank distress, job satisfaction, perceived stress and psychological wellbeing of employees and depositors in Nigeria’s banking sector” the aim of this research was to check effect of financial suffering in the employs who were working for Nigerian banks this is impacted by the psychological well-being, job satisfaction and stress of employees. As a strategy this study adopted employee independent group design and a case study so that they could get the balance assessment of their subjects. For the accuracy of results the variables of study were not changes. “Psychological well-being scale”, “job satisfaction scale” and “perceived stress scale” and a researcher made questionnaire was used to seek information from the depositors and employs. Sample size N=105(n=44 bank customers and n=61 bank employs). In this study five hypotheses were made and they all were examined. Results indicate that the healthy bank employees has experienced high level of job satisfaction as compare to other employees on the other hand depositors experience high level of stress in healthy bank as compared to distressed banks. Results have also indicated the workers who were working in the distressed banks had not experienced the high amount of distress as compare to those who work in healthy banks. There was a hypothesis that the employees in distressed banking sectors will experience the low level of psychological well-being as compare to the employees in the healthy banks. This hypothesis was rejected because the results have shown that the difference between two of groups were not reached to a significant level. Although employees in a healthy bank were experiencing better psychological well-being as compare to distressed banks but the difference was not on a significant level.
Mutsvunguma and Gwandure (2014) conducted a study on “the psychological well-being of employees who handle cash in a bank in inner city Johannesbur”. Cross-sectional design was used to conduct this study and Sample size N=50(n=25 who handle cash and n=5 who don’t handle cash). Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Stress Survey Scale and Congruity Life Satisfaction Scale were used. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the psychological wellbeing of cash handling employees and those who don’t handle cash. The Results suggested that there is huge difference in the psychological well-being of both groups.
For conducting this study following research design, sample, sample strategy, instrument, procedure of data collection and analysis is described below.
Comparative Research design was used for this research. The research determines the difference of mental health, occupational stress and psychological in national and multi-national bank employees.
In the research the sample was drawn by Purposive sampling technique. Sample comprised N=150 (n=75 national bank employees, n=75 multinational bank employees) was taken. Sample includes bank managers, relationship managers and clerical staffs. National bank sample was collected from National bank of Pakistan, Lahore and multinational bank employee’s sample was collected from N.I.B, Lahore.
Following are the three valid tools.
This tool was developed by Veit and Ware in 1983. It has 38 items and it is 6 point scale like Likert type. This test has been used on many populations. The reliability of this tool is 0.93 (Canberra, 2003)
This survey was developed by Ivancevich and Michael in 1983. It is having 20 items. It is 7 point scale like Likert type 1 indicates no level of stress and 7 indicate high level of stress. It has 4 dimensions i.e. work related stress, social stress, occupation stress and job stress. Reliability of this scale is 0.81.
This scale was developed by Bradburn in 1969. It is also known as the Affect Balance Scale. It has two parts and each part is comprises of five item. After getting Yes and no answer , negative answers are subtracted from positive answers. Result ranges from -5 to 5. Score 1 to 5 indicate proficient psychological wellbeing, zero indicate average and below zero indicates very low psychological well-being. Test retests reliability between 0.78 and 0.97. Content validity is between 0.87 and 0.96 (Bradburn, 1969).
After taking permission from bank managers, the employee who was part of this study was informed about the purpose of study. Written consent was taken and privacy and confidentiality regarding providing information was ensured. A self-constructed Demographic form, MHI-38, Psychological wellbeing and Job stress Diagnostic survey was administered on participants for data collection. 10-15 minutes was taken by participant in completing forms. One to one time approach was used to participants. Individual testing was conducted.
The results were analyzed by using statistical package of social sciences. Independent sample t-test was employed to find out the difference in mental health, psychological well-being and occupational stress among national and multi-national bank employees.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the difference in the level of mental health, psychological well-being and occupational stress among national and multi-national bank employees. Independent t test was obtained by running the data on SPSS 18. This chapter includes tables and figures for elaboration of results.
H 1: There is significant difference in mental health of national and multinational bank employees.
Difference in mental health level of national and multi-national bank employees.
|National bank employees
Multi-national bank employees
Note. M = mean; SD = standard deviation; df = degree of freedom; p <0.05
Hypothesis is supported, which shows that there is a significant difference in the level of mental health among national and multi-national bank employees as calculated p value is less than 0.05. The independent sample t-test results indicate that there is a significant difference in the scores of Level of mental health of national bank employees (M=176.41, SD=26.26) and multi-national bank employees (M=152.73, SD= 25.62).
Fig. 4.1. Level of mental health in bank employees.
H1: There will be significant difference in the level of occupational stress among national and multinational bank employees.
Difference in occupational stress among national and multi-national bank employees.
|National bank employees
Multi-national bank employees
Note. M = mean; SD = standard deviation; df = degree of freedom; p <0.05
Hypothesis is supported as obtained p value is less than 0.05.The independent sample t-test results indicate that there is a significant difference in occupational Stress of multi-national (M=96.88, SD= 32.09) and national bank employees (M=64.99, SD=16.52).
Fig. 4.2. Level of occupational stress in bank employees.
H1 There is significant difference in level of psychological well among national and multinational bank employees.
Table 4.3: Difference in psychological well-being among national and multi-national bank employees (N=150; n=75 national bank employees, n=75 multi-national bank employees).
|Bank employees||N M||SD||df||t||p|
|National bank employees
Multi-National bank employees
Note. M = mean; SD = standard deviation; df = degree of freedom; p > 0.05
The value of p is greater than 0.05 (p=0.62) so the hypothesis is not supported and it is concluded that there is no significant difference in level of psychological well-being among national and multinational bank employees.
The present study was conducted to examine the psychological well-being; mental health and occupational stress of national and multi-national bank employees.it include determining the level of stress experienced by bank employees. The results of study indicate significance difference in occupational stress of national and multi-national bank employees. Moreover, the results also show the significant difference in mental health of national and multi-national bank employees. However, non-significant difference in psychological well-being of national and multi-national bank employees therefore, among the three of the hypotheses of the current study the two of the hypotheses were supported and the one of the hypotheses was not supported.
The first Hypothesis was that there is significant difference in the mental health of national and multinational bank employees. The results of this current study supported this hypothesis. Jogsan (2013) conducted a study on mental health and depression of Bank employees. The results of that study revealed that there is significant different in the depression and mental health of bank employees. High level of depression and poor mental health was revealed in private sector bank employees. On the other hand public sector bank employees have lower level of depression and good mental health.
The second Hypothesis was that there is significant difference in the level of occupational stress among national and multinational bank employees. The results of this current study supported this hypothesis. Malik (2011) conducted a study on occupational stress experienced by private and public banks employees. The results of that study revealed that there is significant difference in the level of occupational stress between private and public bank employees. Occupational stress was very low in public bank employees as compared to private bank employees. In another study conducted by Niharika and Kiran (2014) it was found that there is significant difference in the level of occupational stress. It was also found that the private bank employees had high level of occupational stress as compare to national bank employees. Findings of this research are in line with the current study.
The third Hypothesis was stated that there is significant difference in the level of psychological well among national and multinational bank employees. The results of the present study rejected this hypothesis. Samuel,Osinowo and Chipunz (2009) conducted a research to explore the relationship between bank distress, job satisfaction, perceived stress and psychological wellbeing of depositors and bank employees. The study revealed that there is no difference in psychological well-being of employees who are working in distressed bank or healthy banks. Findings of this research are in line with the current study.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the difference in mental health, occupational stress and psychological well-being of national and multi-national bank employees. Comparative research design was used in this study. The results of this study revealed that there is significance difference in mental health and occupational stress of employees who were working in national and multi-national banks. Whereas, the non-significant difference was found in psychological well-being of national and multi-national bank employees. Thus this study is very beneficial for people to know which of the banking sectors is having what level of occupational stress and mental health.
Some of the shortcomings of this study are as follow:
- Three lengthy questionnaires were used in this study and the participants took a lot of time to complete. This it has affected their choice of responses and interest in them.
- In this study a great hindrance for data collection was faced from various banks because of their security purpose and it was against their institutional policies.
- The employee’s workload to some extent might affect the results of this study.
Some of the suggestions that can be applicable in future research are as follow:
- The future research should also include all different cities from all over the Pakistan so that it will help in generalizability.
- Instead of using three lengthy questionnaires, short to the point questionnaires must be chosen to get more reliable results.
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