Multiple Intelligence Theory of Gardner

Howard Gardner has put forth seven different types of intelligence. Latest studies on the cognition have played part in the development of these theories. Every individual has different capacities and there are individual differences according to which one learns and remembers items. One is able to have information about the world by using language, analysis, bodily sensations, spatial clues, understanding people as well as one own-self (Gilman, 2012). Such individual differences and abilities are a challenge for the educational institutes because they have to deal with different people having different capabilities and potentials. The educational institutes, today are based more on the language and its acquiring rather than the logical analysis and interpretation. According to Gardner, the students are more likely to learn those items which are different and attract their attention (Slavin, 2009).

The individuals who have a strong hold on vocabulary and possess a wide range of vocabulary. They are more likely to use words which are effective and can convey their message in a very efficient way as compared to others. Some people convey the same things with the most effective words while others keep on struggling with the words and trying to choose the simple words. They are the people with good verbal intelligence. People who are left handed are more likely to have better verbal intelligence. Politicians, debaters etc. fall mostly in this category (Gilman, 2012).

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The people who are better in solving arithmetic and mathematical problems better than others have logical mathematical intelligence. They solve mathematical questions better. There are people who can solve long length mathematical questions while others hardly fail to apply a simple formula. People wonder how scientists use lengthy medical equations and understand what exactly they are solving. People who like reasoning, calculations, think better and different solutions are the people with logical intelligence (Slavin, 2009).


People with musical intelligence are highly sensitive towards tunes, rhythms and music. They can perceive music better than others, they can remember tunes better, they are even able to listen to the music or tunes in noise. They can remember or study better when they listen to music in the back ground. They love to make music, rhythms and compositions. To increase their remembrance they are recommended to listen to music (Smith, 2002).

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The way a person perceives one-self and understands the behaviors and emotions expressed by one-self is the interpersonal intelligence. They are very good in introspection. They have very high goals, aims, and motives. They have high motivation to achieve their goals. There are very good with an understanding of self (Slavin, 2009).


The way a person judges and makes an image of others and understands is the intrapersonal intelligence. They are very good with interacting with people. They are socially far better than many others. There are people who can make friend more easily and better than other while others wonder how they can do that. These are the people with intrapersonal intelligence. Bureaucrats are a good example in this respect. People working in non-profit and profit organizations are also capable of understanding other people (Smith, 2002).

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Visual three-dimensional 

The people with visual and 3-D intelligence are sensitive towards the sight and imagination of the spaces. They have a very creative mind and can make remember visual things better than others. They can solve puzzles, make and design buildings and other things. With their creative ability they fit in every environment and then make the graphic of it. People often paint or make a model of something they have seen already long ago and others wonder how they still remember it, they are the people with visual or 3D intelligence. They mostly adopt architecture and other professions like that (Slavin, 2009).

 Bodily kinetics 

As the name implies, the people with this intelligence are very good at maintaining grip and balancing their bodies. They can walk better on small paths, they can drive better, and they are good in painting and other things. These type of people have professions like dancing, surgery, defense, jet pilots and other things. They have a very fine control on their nerves, they are very less likely to panic in the bad situations. Mostly, people get numb and do not feel and physical movement but they are still able to cope with it and have control over their body (Gilman, 2012).

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Naturalistic intelligence

The intelligence which is related to the nature and the events, items, and information in the natural surrounding is the naturalistic intelligence. For instance, a person identifies and classifies the different plants, tress, animal, and plants as well as the mountains and their types. It was very common in the people who hunt, farm or at a later stage become botanists (Smith, 2002).

Existential intelligence

Spiritual and religious intelligence is also considered as a multiple intelligence by some supporters of the theory. For Gardner, this is to be classified as the existential intelligence (Slavin, 2009).


There is no doubt that every individual has different intelligence. The theory is very effective and contributes a lot to the development of the different constructs of intelligence. By far, many of the supporters of this theory have emerged and various studies have been performed in this respect as well.

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If we consider this to be true, then how it can be proved that a person who has naturalistic intelligence, does not possess verbal intelligence. The point here to consider is that, if an individual has the capability to observe and gather much information about the natural items then he will also need the verbal intelligence to give that information words and meanings. Although it is true that one intelligence dominates others but every individual has different intelligence and these can be dominant over one another (Gilman, 2012).

On the other hand, it is also true that a few people are good at interpreting the behaviors of others and understanding them but they do not like interaction with people that much. The signals given by the people around are although understood these still have no meaning if the person is not involved in social habits.

Music lovers have information about the musical instruments and the tons etc. but still some do not have that particular capacity to know about the 3-D items. There are differences in this as well.

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