The man has tried to solve and figure out the conundrums existing within this universe with continuous efforts and struggle since the times his senses got to come across the riddles and marvels around him that hinder his path towards success, knowledge, and expertise. Space and its attitudes, however, has made him question
his theories and minutiae which he established under the name of science to satisfy his urge of the quest in order to solve the mysteries of this world. So many advancements have been made regarding material and arithmetic science, outer space disciplines to uncover the secrecy that besieges galaxies, stars, planets and other outer terrains. But the more we put efforts to comprehend these facts, the more we are dragged in confusion and turmoil.
Quantum Mechanics deals with the laws of sub atomic particles and the dimensions constituting their arbitrations and properties within the energy constraints. Elemental laws of classical physics by Newton describes how forces like time and gravity work together in a frame of reference that holds a non-inertial property as sub atomic particles move with the speed of light. Black holes can be considered as the most enigmatic, mysterious and perplexing objects encountered by the scientists so far. A black hole is an area in the dimensions of space and time holding such a strong gravitational force in it that no matter not even radiations can pass through it.
It is a learned behavior of a black hole that it remains cut and astray from outside the world since it exhibits such a strong force of gravity which even prohibits radiations and flow of light particles through it. The hypothesis set by general relativity somehow explains its formation. It states that a competently meager, minimized objects can be turned within the space time dimensions into a black hole as a runaway collapse occurs when the object tries to collapse within its radius, stated as Schwarzschild radius. The black holes appear to be imperceptible as they hinder the permeability of light through them. ”Most familiar bodies have sufficient material strength to prevent gravitational collapse and are in no danger of becoming black holes.
But in stars, gravitational fields are quite large and strength-of-materials forces somewhat less. Gravitational collapse plays a role in the life cycle of stars according to the generally accepted theory of stellar evolution, and astronomers noted that a black hole might be a fitting end for a certain star.” ( Dietrick ). The outer zone of the black hole which holds hindrance and hitch is termed as ‘Event Horizon’. It is also said that a black hole is formed when a star is about to end its life cycle and within this time it undergoes an explosion usually known as a supernova. Although much of the information about the existence and formation of black holes have been convened the point of controversy is the absorbing characteristic of black holes. According to the theory of quantum mechanics, the matter is the form of energy and energy never gets eliminated from the environment rather it remains preserved and is converted from one form to another. Physics treats the matter as a form of information and energy.
The question arises if the information going inside the black holes disappears then where does it go? Whether it is preserved or lost truly? If it is lost then it denies all the established facts of quantum mechanics and the theory of general relativity. This is called ‘Black Hole Information Paradox’. Arguments come around for the evidence of this paradox that the information going into the black holes is not lost and several conspicuous facts have been scrutinized and established for the transformation of this information into other forms of energy. Although it is a settled and admitted matter of fact that black hole information paradox happens to exist and experts are steadily trying to resolve this information paradox. However, the information going inside the black holes is not lost because of the evidential hints of the existence of white holes, propositions that the ongoing objects leave blueprints around the event horizon on a two-dimensional hologram and the suggestion that these objects might end up in the parallel universe.
When an object enters the black hole and happens to penetrate the boundary of the event horizon, it undergoes freezing. It authenticates one of the postulates of time dilation of the theory of general relativity. Thus the object appears to stop moving as the time dilates after its entry in the horizon and the information is preserved. In this case, a black hole is considered to be an eternal state which keeps on growing as the information is conserved in it which is just a boundary away from the eye of the outer world. But the paradox emanates when the black hole evaporates and record of the conserved information becomes a mystery with the desiccation of black hole. “In 1974 Stephen Hawking calculated that black holes were not completely black, they actually emitted radiation. This effect is a consequence of quantum physics in the presence of intense gravitational fields. But because of this radiation, the black hole will evaporate and eventually disappear.” (Matsubara). Stephen termed these emitting radiation as ‘Hawking Radiations’.
One of the arguments put forward to resolve the black hole information paradox is the formation and existence of the white holes. White holes being hypothetical in nature are contradictory to black holes and impede everything which tends to enter them. Investigations in order to fathom and understand the dimensional structure of black holes resulted in the discovery of empty outer region without the evidence of any mass. Theories proposed to explain this outer region discovery state that there are always a number of chances of a black hole to be compressed down into a smaller and denser mass due to its increased singularity. Singularity is the dense and impenetrable central region of a black hole. This is also perceived as the black hole ejects out every little thing it ever swallowed when it reaches the end of its life cycle. “It is not just gravity but space-time itself that is quantized, woven from tiny, individual loops that cannot be subdivided any further.
The loops in this ‘loop quantum gravity’ — a theoretical attempt that has yet to find experimental support — would be so tiny that to any observer space-time looks smooth and continuous.” (Cowen). When these loops and compact region of a black hole cannot be shrunk and compressed anymore an outward pressure is exerted which is termed as ‘quantum bounce’ by theorists. As a consequence of this denatured activity, black hole transforms into a white hole. “Rather than being shrouded by a true, eternal event horizon, the event would be concealed by a temporary ‘apparent horizon.” (Cowen) This theory equips the observers with all the information satisfying the enigmas that relate to black hole information paradox and energy preservation.
Another claim to solve the information paradox is the proposition that black holes are indeed avenues of another parallel universe. The information instead of freezing in the outer space region might end up its path in a parallel universe associated with the interior region of the black hole from where there are no signs of this information to ever come back. “Inside a black hole, a new region of space-time forms a sort of baby universe, in which information is preserved”. (Moskowitz). Black holes can suck information into the compressed region of dense gravity where conventional laws of physics sound to be broken down. It is also proposed by some astronomers that black holes have to be converted into the wormholes to relate the standards set for the transfer of information from one world to another by physics. Wormholes are defined as the textures within the space time dimension that pave the path of entry of an object from one universe to another. As they have no existence of event horizon, unlike black holes, so the objects can move in and out of the worm holes easily. “Matter would swirl around a wormhole in the same way as for a black hole since both objects distort the space around them in the same way.” (Shiga).
Imprinting of information on the event horizon has been considered as one of the best solutions for the information paradox so far. It is proposed by an honored professor, Stephen Hawking who did a prolonged research on this topic. Stephen has anticipated the presence of fabric like structures termed as ‘hairs’ on the outer boundary i.e. event horizon. These structures record the information going inside in the form of imprints on a two-dimensional hologram. He proposed that information in the form of energy remains conserved in the outer regions which are termed as “super-translations” that upon analysis appears to be the imprinted blue prints which afterward result in the change of timings or maybe the position in space-time of the particles or information ejected out by the Hawking Radiations. All this phenomenon can be the result of emplacement of dread which can be formed by a star or any other such kind of material passing through the black hole. Thus the information sucked by the black holes can actually be retrieved but in an ambiguously futile form.
Black holes are considered to be convoluting objects of this universe as they foment the baffling issues about the authenticity of two major theories of physics i.e. quantum mechanics dealing with the properties and nature of sub atomic particles of an atom and general relativity which demonstrates the laws governing gravity. What the matter of issue nurtured by the paradox is the contradiction between these theories which results due to the information absorbing character of the black holes. Although many counter arguments have been provided by the scientists for the solution yet put forward to solve the black hole information paradox. Formation of white holes from black holes can happen to breach one of the most important benchmarks of physical science as it encroaches the entropy of the system. Entropy is referred as the thermodynamic function of a system or a reaction representing the changes in the thermal energy.
It can also be stated as the degree of randomness or disorder in a systematic function. The quantum bounce converting black holes into white holes is supposed to result in the decrease of system’s entropy but the entropy is witnessed to be increasing never facing a decline in it. This opens up a new paradox. Entropy faces a decrease but it has yet to be discovered when does this entropy drop occur to furnish the proposed theory. Moreover, the existence of white holes is questioned as the scientists have not succeeded to spot them yet. But in recent years many energy changes have been recorded by the astrologists which appeal the presence of white holes. In 2006, the gamma ray burst was pleaded to be originated from supernova blast from a black hole. Along with the evidence of white holes, it also promoted instability of white holes as they result in cohesion as soon as they are formed. Thus the energy imbalances and the beam blasts are witnessed and recorded with different intensities. Scientists have not entered yet within the boundaries of black holes.
The only way to pass through the horizon is through the absorption of the objects, so the proposition of black hole to be a wormhole doesn’t come out to be strong enough on the phenomenal basis. Worm holes lack event horizon and allow in and out permeability of the materials easily. This also accounts the possibility of wormholes to be just simple openings in the same universe as they don’t emit any Hawking Radiations. This also proposed that the inner singularity of wormholes is so intense that it tears every little thing passing through it. But if that proposition comes true then it would obscure all the established facts of quantum mechanics and theory of relativity as the information would then assumed to be converted into the indestructible form. Thus the idea that information going into another universe seems a much satisfactory idea. Another solution has been provided for this information loss paradox is that the dense singularity imposes the process of contraction to the objects going inside a black hole which undergoes expansion later on when the black hole evaporates. The concept of Hawking Radiation comes true in this case.
However many questions have arisen on the scheme of blueprints and radiation emission like how can the information encrypted by the soft hair on two-dimensional hologram be decrypted so that it can be retrieved? The idea of hairs is merely a step ahead to solve this information paradox and further research is still to be done to uncover this mystery. But Stephen Hawking has solved much of the enigma by his latest two-dimensional hologram proposition as the ongoing objects are now perceived to leave energy signatures on the hologram. This has opened the path for the further research on the black hole information paradox as so much more has still to be discovered. Stephen says that “It is certainly possible that, following the path indicated by this work, further investigation will uncover more hair of this type, and perhaps eventually lead to a resolution of the black hole information problem.” (MacDonald)
Extremely large entropy and long duration of the Hawking radiations serves as the two most important factors to solve the enigma of the information paradox. Defining it in the light of quantum mechanics via the integral formulation, information paradox appears as a classical action in space time measure perceived as space phase. Due to the large entropy, black holes own a vast space phase too. The spread of wavelength imprints in the form of hairs can easily be witnessed on such a large diaphragm of the space phase by measuring the timescale after the spread of the wave function. Scientists are still trying to come up with the new theories to solve this mystery but with the discovery of hair and Hawking Radiations, it seems that the science has gone on this field far too but close to the solution. Soon more facts about this information paradox would be ignited and black holes information paradox would be counted in the achievements of the mankind.
Dietrick E. Thomsen. “Black Holes: No Longer Hypothetical.” Science News, vol. 103, no. 2, 1973, pp. 28–29., www.jstor.org/stable/3958066.
Matsubara, Keizo. “The Black Hole Information Paradox.” Vol. 1, pp. 2-3. 20th December. 1999. http://test.physics.uu.se/teorfys/sites/fysast.uu.se.teorfys/files/files/Keizo_Matsubara_paradox.pdf
Cowen Ron. “Black Holes May Explode Into ‘White Holes’ And Pour All Their Matter Into Space, Physicists Say.” 18th July. 2014 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/18/black-holes-white-holes-explode-_n_5597006.html
“Stephen Hawking: ‘If you feel you are in a black hole, don’t give up. There’s a way out. ‘The Guardian, 26th August, 2015. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/aug/25/black-holes-way-out-stephen-hawking
Moskowitz Clara. “Stephen Hawking Hasn’t Solved the Black Hole Paradox Just Yet.” ScientificAmerican, 27th August. 2017 https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/stephen-hawking-hasn-t-solved-the-black-hole-paradox-just-yet/
Have we seen a white hole? | EarthSky.org Byrd, Deborah. “Have We Seen A White Hole? | Earthsky.Org”. Earthsky.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 14 May 2017.
MacDonald, Fiona. “Stephen Hawking’S Finally Published A Solution To The Black Hole Information Paradox”. ScienceAlert. N.p., 2017. Web. 14 May 2017.
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